biotin products After crown formation root development begin
After crown formation, root development begins via the interaction between the Hertwig root sheath (HERS) and the dental papilla, which differentiates into odontoblasts and forms dentin and pulp. HERS is associated with the number of roots and their morphology . The stem cells from the apical papilla appear to be the source of odontoblasts that are responsible for the formation of root dentin. Conserving these stem cells when treating immature teeth may allow for the continuous formation of the root to completion ; otherwise, cells in covering the follicular tissue can differentiate into cementoblasts that are induced by the stimulation of root dentin . The AP, HERS, and covering follicular tissues are all essential for root development. Despite the heterogeneity of this region, it exists as a single entity in which the interaction and functions of these components are essential for the establishment of a structurally intact root-periodontal complex ; we call this structure the apical pulp complex (APC) (–).
The CP contains more differentiated cells than the AP with mature odontoblasts, and their cellular processes extending into dentinal tubules are the first to encounter caries bacterial biotin products . Many genes characterizing mature odontoblasts have been identified, with transforming growth factor beta, which is important in dentinogenesis, mineralization, and proinflammation, recruiting immune cells such as dendritic cells , . Nestin, which produces the hard tissue matrix of dentin and repairs carious and injured teeth, was expressed more strongly in mature odontoblasts of the crown cusp region . Dentin sialophosphoprotein, which is expressed by matured odontoblasts, is important in dentinogenesis and is a specific marker for odontoblastic differentiation .
Several recent studies of pulp biology have used complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray technology to compare the gene expression profiles in different subjects including comparing pulp tissue between carious and sound teeth , pulp tissue, and odontoblasts to determine the characteristics of odontoblasts among pulp tissues and evaluating age-related changes in human dental pulp tissue . This technology is a useful method for screening new genes, which contrasts with only fragmented information being used in the past. Although the CP and APC are complex and have different cellular compositions, such investigations can provide useful insights into APC functions in root development and biological processes of pulp tissue maturation.
Introduction Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases with many different risk factors resulting in loss of retinal ganglion cells of the retina and deficits in the visual field, . Ocular hypertension has demonstrated to be one of the risk factors for glaucoma, . Results from the clinical study and animal models’ researches indicated that high intraocular pressure (IOP) were associated with progressive visual field deterioration, and current medications focus on intraocular pressure are predictable retinal ganglion cell loss, , . Astrocyte also known as astroglia, counts for 20% to 40% of all glial cells in the adult central nervous system. Astrocytes support the axons in a normal state, but in response to injury/disease, they remodel and become reactive, inducing changes in morphology, gene expression and function that have the potential for both beneficial and detrimental effects, . Astrocytes become reactive and respond in a typical manner characterized by proliferation and extensive hypertrophy, termed astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is a reliable and sensitive marker of diseased tissue and changes the molecular expression and morphology of astrocytes, . Recently, extensive studies have identified modules of astrocytes interaction with glaucoma, , . However, the regulation of astrocyte response to injury in glaucoma with high intraocular pressure remains elusive.